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Courses

BIO 1001/1002: Principles of Biology I and II (4 cr. each)
This two-semester lecture sequence, complemented with hands-on laboratory experience, stresses the major biological principles and concepts that serve as the foundation for study in the biological and health-related fields.  The first semester includes such topics as: the chemistry of biological systems, cell and historical organization, membrane transport, metabolism and evolution of organisms, with the major focus on the principles of Mendelian genetics, molecular genetics, and population genetics.  The second semester stresses animal and plant organization, development, and physiology.  Laboratory sessions provide opportunities to gain technical experience and to improve laboratory-related writing skills.  The BIO 1001-1002 sequence is strongly recommended; however, students may take BIO 1002 before BIO 1001.  (Fall) (Spring)

BIO 1015: Introduction to Human Disease (3 cr.)
This course is designed for students with an interest in human disease.  Different groups of diseases will be introduced, for e.g., Inflammatory diseases or Infectious diseases, Congenital & Hereditary diseases, Degenerative diseases, Metabolic diseases and Neoplastic Diseases.  The causes and the biology of the diseases will be discussed.  There will be an introduction of microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi and viruses.  Note: Not for major credit.  (Spring)

BIO 1016: Endangered Earth: Understanding Environmental Pollution (3 cr.)
Technological development in the last century has resulted in persistent changes in the Earth's environment.  Industrialization and fossil fuel dependence have led to significant air, water and land pollution.  Sources and mechanisms of pollution will be examined, as well as the adverse effects on human health and ecosystems.  Topics of current interest include acid rain, ozone depletion, global warming, loss of biodiversity, wetland disappearance, temperate and tropical deforestation, and the effects of urbanization on natural areas.  Note: Not for major credit.  (Fall)

BIO 1018: Introduction to Animal Behavior (3 cr.)
The objective of this course is to introduce the biological basis and diversity of animal behavior, including physiological, developmental, ecological, and evolutionary aspects. The relationship between the behavior of living organisms, their survival and reproduction in natural environments will be emphasized. Lecture topics will include habitat selection, communication and social behavior, reproduction, and the evolution of parental care.  Not for major credit.  (Fall).

BIO 1019: Introduction to the Marine Environment (3 cr.)
This introductory class will provide an overview of both the physical and biological aspects of the earth's oceans.  Physical characteristics to be discussed will include area, depth, temperature, salinity, pressure and the importance of water movements. The biology of ocean communities will also be examined, ranging from primary production in phytoplankton communities to macroinvertebrates, fish and marine mammals.  Emphasis will be placed on nutrient cycling and biological diversity within marine ecosystems.  Not for major credit.  (Spring)

BIO 2008: Nutrition (3 cr.)
This one-semester course focuses on the principles and practical aspects of nutrition in a personal way.  The physiological importance of macronutrients and micronutrients are discussed to help students understand what good nutrition can accomplish.  Emphasis is on evaluation and self-assessment of students, nutritional status and needs. This course is open to all students.  (Spring)

BIO 2010: Foundations of Ecology (3 cr.)
Although this is the first course in the Ecology sequence for Environmental Studies Majors, it is open to all students. An introduction to basic ecological concepts such as the niche, food chains and food webs, biotic competition, the importance of biodiversity, and movement of nutrients and matter through both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems will be included. Integral to the course is an understanding of the importance of how ecosystems function. Discussion of how ecosystems are being affected by human activities will also be included. (Spring)

BIO 2016: Global Environmentalism (3 cr.)
This course introduces students to the global nature of environmental issues and is open to all students.  Each major topic will be covered with specific reference to an area of the world.  For example, biodiversity and conservation will be discussed in a broad overview but particular emphasis will be placed on examining the problems in wildlife parks in Africa, as well as tropical rainforests in South America.  Water pollution will be covered with specific reference to the Clean Water Act in North America.  Topics will include nuclear, air, and water pollution; deforestation; ozone destruction and global warming; human ecology; species diversity; sustainable agriculture and world population growth.  (Spring '07, 08)

BIO 2019: Introduction to Geology (3 cr.)
This course is an introduction to physical and historical geology and is open to all students.  Topics covered will include basic minerals and rock structure, soil and water cycles, plate tectonics and earthquakes, volcanic activity, oceans, atmosphere and astronomy, sedimentary processes and stratigraphy, geologic time and radiometric dating, and will conclude with general concepts in evolutionary theory and paleontology (history of life on earth).  Students interested in the environmental studies minor concentration, as well as students who are interested in earth science are especially encouraged to participate.  (Fall)

BIO 2020: Special Topics: Biology of Cancer (3 cr.)
Open to all students, this course explores the basic nature of cancer from its ancient historical evolution to its distribution throughout the modern world.  By examining current immunocytochemical, molecular genetic and biochemical research on the various forms of cancer, the student will gain a better understanding of the behavior and activities of both normal and cancerous cells.  Recent research on the many causes of cancer gives us new ideas for prevention and treatment methods.  In addition, this course imparts the scientific basis for personal life style, nutritional and environmental choices to minimize the risk of cancer during his or her lifetime.  (Spring)

BIO 2021: Special Topics: Introduction to Neuroscience (3 cr.)
This course, open to all students, emphasizes the biological structures and functions of the brain and nervous system in health and disease.  Topics include neuroanatomy, cellular organization and membrane biology, and neuroimaging such as CAT scan and MRI.  (Spring)

BIO 2022 Principles of Virology and Viral Disease (3 cr.)
Open to all students, this class introduces the basic, fundamental structure and pathogenesis of viruses, along with methods to control them. The viral classification, genome structure and their molecular structure are reviewed.  The principles of host defense and viral offense are discussed.  In addition, the principles of emerging viral infection and several important viral diseases, such as AIDS, SARS, Bird Flu, etc. are introduced. The origins of these diseases and the developing treatment are also thoroughly discussed. (Spring)

BIO 2025: Special Topics: Aquatic Ecology (3 cr.)
The goal of this course is to introduce the fundamental concepts of ecology within the context of freshwater and marine ecosystems and is open to all students.  An introduction to the aquatic environment and the species that inhabit these environments will initiate the course.  Topics will include community structure, food chains and webs, bioenergetics, nutrient cycles, diversity and species competition.  Local areas such as the Hudson River Watershed, the Long Island estuary, and the Great Lakes will be examined.  The African Lakes, Amazon Basin, Caribbean Sea and other specific areas will also be discussed.  Students will investigate a specific aquatic ecosystem of their choice for their research paper, and will have the opportunity for some "hands-on" experience with local ecosystems.  (Spring)

BIO 3003: Histology (4 cr.)
This course studies the microscopic anatomy of animal tissues and organs as elucidated by brightfield and electron microscopy and correlates these cellular interactions with function.  The laboratory encompasses a broad range of cytological and microtechnique procedures.  Prerequisites: Principles of Biology I and II.  (Fall)

BIO 3005: Developmental Biology (4 cr.)
Examination of principles underlying growth and development of organisms, from fertilization to embryonic organization and tissue differentiation.  Descriptive morphology of vertebrate and invertebrate developmental sequences will be compared with special emphasis on genetic control and coordination of development, timing of gene expression, and biochemical signals.  Laboratory study will emphasize descriptive morphology of vertebrate embryology, but will include classical demonstrations of invertebrate development and an experimental component.  Prerequisites: Principles of Biology I and II, Principles of Chemistry I and II.  Organic Chemistry I and II are recommended.  (Spring)

BIO 3007: Human Anatomy and Physiology I (4 cr.)
This first course of a two-course series introduces various processes and activities of the human body.  Subject matter includes physical and chemical properties of life, cell membrane theory, organization of tissues, skeletal and muscular systems, nervous system organization and control, and special senses. Laboratory work includes systematic coverage of human anatomy, cat dissections, and relevant physiological experiments. Students may take this class as one of their required laboratory classes, but need to take both Bio 3007 and Bio 3017 to fulfill graduate and medical school prerequisites.  Prerequisites: Principles of Biology I and II, Principles of Chemistry I and II.  (Fall)

BIO 3012: Biostatistics (3 cr.)
For upper level students, this course will cover quantitative methods used in biological investigation. Students will learn how statistics are used in biology, and how data are collected, summarized, and analyzed. Topics will include an introduction to descriptive statistics, basic probability, and differences between parametric and non-parametric tests. Various statistical methods will be covered, including ANOVA, regression analysis, correlation coefficients, as well as X2 and frequency distributions. Prerequisites: Principles of Biology I and II. (Spring)

BIO 3013: Microbiology (4 cr.)
This is an introduction to the morphology and physiology of bacteria and other microorganisms. Laboratory exercises will afford students the opportunity to develop skills in various practices designed to study the morphology, physiology and practical value of nonpathogenic microorganisms, including sterile technique. Prerequisites: Principles of Biology I and II, Principles of Chemistry I and II.  (Spring)

BIO 3015: Principles of Biochemistry (3 cr.)
This one-semester lecture course focuses on the structure and function of biomolecules including enzymology, bioenergetics, and intermediary metabolism. Prerequisites: Principles of Biology I and II, Principles of Chemistry I and II, and Organic Chemistry I and II.  (Fall)

BIO 3017: Human Anatomy and Physiology II (4 cr.)
This course is a continuation of BIO 3007, and will explore the remaining systems of the body. Subject matter includes the cardiovascular system and blood, endocrine system, lymphatic system and immune defenses, respiration, digestion and metabolism, urinary system and reproduction. As with the first course, laboratory work includes systematic coverage of human anatomy, cat dissections, and relevant physiological experiments. Prerequisite: Human Anatomy and Physiology I. (Spring)

BIO 3018: Invertebrate Zoology (4 cr.)
Invertebrate Zoology is the study of all animals not possessing a backbone - which is about 99% of all identified animal species!  This course will focus on the phylogeny, anatomy, physiology and life strategies of various invertebrate phyla from the Protozoa to the Porifera, Platyhelminthes, Annelids, Molluscs, Arthropods, and Echinoderms. Laboratory material will supplement lecture material, and there will be numerous dissections and comparative analysis throughout the course. Prerequisites: Principles of Biology I and II. (Spring)

BIO 3019: Nutrition in Health and Disease (3 cr.)
This course covers the methods of nutritional assessment for various pathological conditions.  Food habits, nutrition during pregnancy, the relationship between nutrition and physical fitness are studied.  Additionally, the nutritional effect on diseases such as Gastrointestinal Disease, AIDS, Renal Disease, and Diabetes will be discussed.  Prerequisites: Principles of Biology, Principles of Chemistry I and II.  (Spring)

BIO 3027: Transmission Electron Microscopy (4 cr.)
This one semester laboratory/lecture course will acquaint the student with the TEM as a research tool.  Practical experience will be stressed, including microscope usage and maintenance, specimen preparation, ultra-sectioning, staining techniques, photographic skills and evaluation of micrographs.  Prerequisites: Principles of Biology I and II, Principles of Chemistry I and II.  Histology and/or Molecular Cell Biology are strongly recommended.  Note; May be taken at any time as an independent study with permission of the instructor.

BIO 3028: Immunology (3 cr.)
Nature and mechanisms of acquired resistance including humoral and cellular immunity.  Characteristics of antigens and antibodies and their interaction will be studied.  The immune system and disease will be discussed.  Prerequisites: Principles of Biology I and II and Principles of Chemistry I and II. 
(Spring)

BIO 3030: Molecular Cell Biology (3 cr.)
The emphasis of this lecture course is on the detailed study of the major cellular components with particular attention to the relationship between functions, and the molecular and supramolecular organization of the cell.  Topics will include: the fine structure of eukaryotes, prokaryotes and viruses, the chemical composition of cells, and the molecular manipulation of cellular components.  The emerging field of molecular cell biology offers a more comprehensive approach to the understanding of the cell and ultimately, the human organism.  This approach utilizes the techniques of the molecular biologist and represents a union of several subfields of biology including: genetics, cell biology, biochemistry and microscopy.  Prerequisites: Principles of Biology I and II, and Principles of Chemistry I and II.  (Fall)

BIO 3031: Aquatic Biology (4 cr.)
This one semester laboratory course will explore the morphology, physiology, and ecology of aquatic organisms from both marine and freshwater environments.  The laboratory will involve extensive field work to observe aquatic organisms in their natural habitats and to gain experience sampling physical, chemical, and biological factors in coastal, lacustrine, and river ecosystems.  Prerequisites: Principles of Biology I and II.  (Fall)

BIO 3032: Parasitology (4 cr.)
A study of animal parasites with an emphasis on human parasitic disease.  Course content includes protozoan, helminth and arthropod parasites.  Laboratory exercises are designed to illustrate parasite anatomy and to enable students to diagnose certain parasitic disease.  Prerequisites: Principles of Biology I and II.  (Spring)

BIO 3035/3036: Biochemistry I and II (3 cr. each)
This two-semester course is designed to introduce students to the interrelatedness of molecular framework, bimolecular activities and functioning of living organisms.  Structure and function of proteins, enzymology, bioenergetics, and glucosemetabolism (Glycolysis, TCA cycle) are emphasized.  Corequisites: BIO 3037/3038.  Prerequisites: Principles of Biology I and II, Principles of Chemistry I and II, Organic Chemistry I and II.  Juniors and Seniors or permission of instructor. (Fall) (Spring)

BIO 3037/3038: Biochemical Techniques I and II (2 cr.)
This two-semester course is the concurrent requirement of BIO 3035/3036.  Exercises are designed to introduce students to a variety of biochemical analytical techniques, preparative procedures and instruments used in biochemical experimentation.  Students apply the methods in projects designed to gain experience in developing and applying protocols for biochemical research.  Prerequisites: Principles of Biology I and II, Principles of Chemistry I and II, Organic Chemistry I and II.  (Fall) (Spring)

BIO 3039: Recombinant DNA Technology (4 cr.)
This one-semester laboratory course focuses on the central question in modern molecular biology: how cells work in molecular detail.  The study of genetics is now facilitated by a collection of recombinant DNA techniques designed for direct manipulation and chemical analysis of the genetic material, which controls the cell.  The specific techniques used in this course include the specific cleavage of DNA with restriction endonucleases, nucleic acid hybridization, gel electrophoresis, and DNA cloning.  This course is the complement to BIO 3030 Molecular Cell Biology and replaces the Genetics courses.  Prerequisites: Principles of Biology I and II, Principles of Chemistry I and II, or permission of instructor.  Molecular Cell Biology is strongly recommended.  (Spring)

BIO 3043: Electron Microscopy for Research and Education
(4 cr.)
This one-semester laboratory/lecture course will acquaint the student with both the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the transmission electron microscope (TEM) as tools for research and education.  Practical applications will be stressed and students will have the opportunity to choose the most appropriate techniques for their needs.  Included among these skills are microscope usage and maintenance, specimen preparation, ultrasectioning, staining techniques, photographic skills, and evaluation and presentation of micrographs.  Prerequisites: Principles of Biology I and II, Principles of Chemistry I and II, or the permission of the instructor.  Histology and/or Molecular Cell Biology are strongly recommended.  (Fall)

BIO 3047: Vertebrate Biology (4 cr.)
Vertebrates are a group of organisms that share a common structural design the vertebral column.  Despite that structural commonality, they are a surprisingly diverse group of animals in terms of morphology, metabolism, behavior and geographic distribution.  This course examines the physiology, ecology, reproductive strategy and evolution of vertebrates ranging from fish to fowl.  Topics will include, but not be limited to, the evolution of early vertebrates, physiological adaptations to life on land, in the water and in the air, phylogenetic relationships between vertebrate classes, and a comparison of reproductive strategies.  Prerequisites: Principles of Biology I and II, Principles of Chemistry I and II.  (Fall)

BIO 3049: Neuroanatomy and Neurophysiology (4 cr.)
Various topics related to the structure and function of the central and peripheral nervous systems will be included in this course.  Topics will include basic concepts in neurophysiology, neurodevelopment, and neurochemistry, gross and micro-neuroanatomy, neuropathology, and functional systems.  Lecture material will be augmented by weekly laboratory sessions.  Prerequisites: Principles of Biology I and II and Principles of Chemistry I and II.  (Spring)

BIO 3050: Scanning Electron Microscopy and Cell Photomicrography (4 cr.)
This lecture/laboratory course is designed to familiarize the student with the use of the SEM as applied to research.  Emphasis will be on the preparation of biological specimens, individual operation and maintenance of the microscope, and the collection and presentation of SEM data.  The photo-technique topics will include the use of the brightfield and phase contrast microscope and our darkroom facilities to expose, develop, and print macroscopic images.  Prerequisites: Principles of Biology I and II, Principles of Chemistry I and II, Histology and/or Molecular Cell Biology are strongly recommended.  Note: May be taken at any time as an independent study with the permission of the instructor.

BIO 3051: Tropical Rain Forest Ecology (3 cr.)
This course examines the interactions between plants, animals, humans, and the environment with special focus on the biological relationships found in the tropical rain forests.  Topics covered will include; general ecology, ecology of the tropical rain forests, biodiversity, biological regimes, sustainable economics, environmentalism, the impact of bioprospecting, international conventions, and intellectual property rights. Prerequisites: Principles of Biology I and II, Foundations of Ecology is strongly recommended  (Summer)

BIO 3052: Infectious Diseases (3 cr.)
The focus of this course is on microorganisms as they affect human health.  Methods of physical and chemical control of microbes, drugs, human-microbe interactions, the nature of human host defenses to microbes, epidemiology and the major microbial groups of medical importance will be discussed.  Prerequisites: Principles of Biology I and II, Principles of Chemistry I and II.  (Fall)

BIO 3054: Osteology: Form, function and development of bones (4 cr.)
For students interested in more advanced anatomy of the skeletal system, this course will focus on bone form, function, movement, and development of the vertebrate skeleton. Detailed anatomy of the axial and appendicular portions of the skeleton will be covered, as well as bone histology, development, and biomechanics. Emphasis on identification of individual bone structures and the importance of these structures to function and movement of the skeletal system will be focal to the laboratory sections. Prerequisites: Principles of Biology I and II, Principles of Chemistry I and II, Human Anatomy and Physiology I.  (Spring)

BIO 3055: Human Biology and Evolution (4 cr.)
This course will cover the study of humans in their evolutionary, ecological and adaptational setting.  Laboratory exercises will include an introduction to the human skeleton, a survey of modern human variation, adaptation and human genetics; a survey of the primate fossil record, as well as study of the living primates; and a detailed examination of the evolutionary history of hominids and humans with particular emphasis on the biology of human evolution.  Prerequisites: Principles of Biology I and II.  (Spring)

BIO 3056: Environmental Ecology (4 cr.)
This is the capstone course for the Environmental Studies minor and major. Both lecture and laboratory will focus on the ecological effects of pollution, disturbance and other stresses on ecosystems.  Particular attention will be paid to stresses associated with human activity and the ecological damage they are causing.  Field-work may include off campus trips.  In addition to the lab and lecture requirements, students will be expected to initiate and successfully complete a semester-long research project on a topic of their choosing.  Prerequisites: Principles of Biology I and II, Principles of Chemistry I and II.  (Fall)

BIO 3057: Forensic Biology (4 cr.)
This lecture/laboratory course will be an overview of the biological evidence and techniques used in forensic science.  Topics will include study of human skeletal and dental remains, trauma to the human body, facial reconstruction, forensic entomology and botany, hair and fiber analysis, fingerprinting, pathology used in identification, and toxicology.  The course will also include an examination of the techniques used in recovery, replication and analysis of DNA that contributes to DNA profiling, particularly RFLP, VNTR, and STR-PCR analysis, and an overview of population variability and demographics.  Students will be able to apply many of these techniques in the laboratory section.  Prerequisites: Principles of Biology I and II, Principles of Chemistry I and II.  (Spring)

Bio 3058: Evolutionary Biology (3 cr.)
This class provides students with an in-depth understanding of how the scientific method is used to address questions in the field of evolutionary biology, and how the application of evolutionary ideas has shaped contemporary thinking about the history of life on earth.  Course material will include discussions of evolutionary theory and Darwinism, speciation and adaptation, molecular evolution, phylogenetic analysis, analysis of trends in the evolution of life, and the evolution of disease.  Prerequisites: Principles of Biology I and II.  (Fall)

BIO 3059: Marine Biology (4 cr.)
This course will provide students with a foundation in several aspects of marine biology.  It begins with a discussion of physical oceanography and then move quickly to biological aspects of marine biology.  Topics will include estuarine ecology, plankton communities, benthic ecology, deep-sea biology, marine communities, and fisheries biology.  The lab takes a natural history approach to marine biology by taking advantage of our unique location near Long Island Sound.  Prerequisites: Principles of Biology I and II.  (Fall)

BIO 3060: Bioethics (3 cr.)
Starting with a good foundation in the ethical decision-making process, students will be able to identify and analyze pertinent ethical questions by understanding the relevant scientific concepts and applying their decision-making skills to dilemmas in the health and medical field, in research and biotechnology, and in the environmental arena.  Through lectures, group discussions, role-playing, and case-based studies, issues such as organ transplantation, euthanasia, reproductive technologies, human genome project and genetic engineering, gene therapy, cloning, stem cell research, and bioenvironmental policies will be examined.  (Spring)

BIO 3065: Advanced Animal Behavior (3 cr.)
Why are dogs so social? What do chimps think when they see a puzzle? Do elephants really never forget? How and why do birds migrate seasonally, and what about those gaudy tail feathers? Is human behavior comparable in any way to animals? This course will use scientific methods to identify pattern and process in animal behavior, and discuss and evaluate basic ecological and evolutionary principles that shape behavior, to gain a better understanding of the way animals and humans interact with their environments and each other. Prerequisites: Principles of Biology I and II, Introduction to Animal Behavior is strongly recommended. (Fall)

BIO 3070: Cell Culture Techniques (4 cr.)
This lecture/laboratory course will provide students with a solid understanding of basic sterile cell culture techniques through the growth and maintenance of both normal and transformed adherent and suspension cell in culture.  Topics include primary and explant culture techniques, trypsinization and media supplementation, cell counting, determining viability and growth curves in plate and well cultures, single cell cloning, transfection technologies, fluorescent analysis, photomicrography, reporter assays, cryopreservation, cell cycle determinants and the induction of apoptosis.  This course is strongly recommended for those students who plan to do cell or tissue work in cancer or neuroscience research for their senior project.  Prerequisites: Principles of Biology I and II.  Histology or Molecular Cell Biology is strongly recommended.  (Spring)

BIO 3099: Research Seminar (2 cr.)
This seminar course is designed to introduce the student to scientific research problems and to aid critical problem-solving skills through reading and writing in a scientific field of interest.  It focuses on literature research, elements of experimental design, testing a hypothesis, analysis of data, reading and writing journal articles, and the use of computers for writing, graphics, and presentation.  By the end of the semester, the student will have completed an extended protocol and have established a working literature base for their senior project.  This course should be taken in the spring semester of the junior year (or in the third from the last semester for accelerated programs).  Prerequisites: Principles of Biology I and II, Principles of Chemistry I and II.  (Spring)

BIO 3499: Senior Research (3 cr.)
This independent laboratory course is based on the work completed in the Research Seminar.  Students will work closely with a Biology faculty member to establish their experimental design, standardize their protocols, and conduct their research.  This course should be taken in the fall semester of the senior year (or in the second from the last semester for accelerated programs).  Prerequisites: Principles of Biology I and II, Principles of Chemistry I and II, Research Seminar.  (Fall)

BIO 3998: Senior Evaluation (2 cr.)
This is the final semester in the three-semester research program in Biology.  In this course, students will finish their research, analyze their data and organize it into their final thesis.  The final written thesis is presented as a journal article for publication and is due at the end of the semester.  In addition, all students must formally present their research to the Biology department.  This course is taken in the spring semester of the senior year or in the final semester in accelerated programs.  Prerequisites: Principles of Biology I and II, Principles of Chemistry I and II, Research Seminar Senior Research.  (Spring)

BIO 4495: Independent Study (3 cr.)
For majors only with permission of the department.  Must be done under close supervision of a Biology faculty member.

BIO 4497: Internship (3 cr.)
For majors only with permission of the department.  Must be done under close supervision of a Biology faculty member.  Note: Other advanced level courses are described under the Graduate Course descriptions, later in this Catalog.